What is Title II?
Title II, the Supporting Effective Instruction State Grant Program, is the most significant source of federal funding supporting professional learning for educators and leaders at the school, district and state levels. Authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title II is designed, among other things, to provide all students with greater access to effective educators.
Title II funding is awarded to state educational agencies (SEAs) on a formula basis and then states subgrant funds to local education agencies (LEAs). The program is funded in every appropriations cycle as part of the Labor-HHS and Education appropriations bill, so it is an ongoing allocation of funds through the annual federal funding process. This means that the House and Senate renegotiate a final funding bill each year, which is why your advocacy is so critical.
What does Title II power?
Professional learning communities
Novice teacher and principal induction and mentorship
Forums to leverage teacher expertise and leadership
Increased content knowledge for educators
Structures for personalizing learning for every student
Teacher residency programs
Powered by Title II
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The Flow of Title II, Part A Funding
Total State Allocation for Title II, Part A (100%)
Not less than 95% for LEA Subgrants (ESEA section 2101(c)(1))
NEW: SEA may reserve up to 3% of the amount for LEA subgrants for State-level principal and school leader support (including preparation academies)
(ESEA section 2101(c)(3))
Remainder for LEA Subgrants
(ESEA section 2101(c)(3))
Up to 5% for State Activities (ESEA section 2102(c)(4))
NEW: SEA may reserve up to 2% of total State funding for teacher, principal, or other school leader preparation academies
(ESEA section 2101(c)(4)(B)(xii))
Up to 1% of total State funding for State Administration
(ESEA section 2101(c)(2))
Remainder for other State Activities
(ESEA section 2101(c)(4))
Note that Title II, Part A also reserves .5% for schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Education and .5% for Outlying Areas from the total authorization of Title II, Part A appropriations, which are not displayed here.
Title II Funding History
Funding for Title II is determined by Congress as part of the annual appropriations process. As you will see in the annual appropriations line below, until last year, the overall funding for Title II has decreased each year. Our advocacy together over the past few years stabilized funding for Title II and helped begin its upward funding trajectory.
You will notice a significant decrease in the authorized funding amount line, starting in 2016. This was when ESSA was signed into law, replacing No Child Left Behind which had a higher authorized funding level than did ESSA. Finally, you will see that the annual appropriations line has still yet to meet the authorized funding line, which means that Title II continues to be funded below the level ESSA recommends.
While Title II funding continues to trend upwards, we still have a long way to go. This is why your advocacy is so critical.